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SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIES ON SELECTED INDUSTRIAL LOCATIONS IN RIVERS STATE (ELEME)

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ABSTRACT

This study was conducted in Eleme LGA Rivers State. The aim was to assess the socio-cultural impact of industrial location and its activities in the study area. The specific objectives are to; Assess the socio-cultural situation of the people of the area before the emergence of industries in the area, Identify the different industrial zones in the area as specified in the Eleme master plan, Examine the impacts of industrial location on the socio-cultural life of the people, and to proffer possible measures to identified negative impacts and enhancement measures to positive ones. The total number of communities that made up the study area was determined to be 17. The stratified sampling technique was used to differentiate the industrial based communities from the non industrial based communities. The industrial based communities were identified to be eight (8) communities. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 4 communities out of 8 industrial based communities that made up the sampled communities. A sample of 99 house hold heads were selected with the aid of Taro Yamane formula from a total household heads of 10860. A face-to-face questionnaire administration was carried out to a systematic probability sampled household heads. Information was also obtained from other sources including key informants. Data collected from the field were coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study have shown that the industrial zone in  Eleme LGA is found within the industrial based communities in the area, and  that  industrial location has impacted greatly on the socio-cultural lives of the people both positively and negatively.  The positive impacts include; massive development, job creation and employment, improved presence of security etc while the negative impacts include; Change in the traditional occupation of the people, high crime rate and cultist activities, high cost of living, social stratification among chiefs, change in moral and family value and structure etc. The study came up with a number of recommendations to include; Respect to the culture of the Eleme people in the midst of the growing trend in industrial location and its activities in the area. Sacred places and divinity should be highly protected and secured to avoid desecration, Cultural heritage, value system and moral institutional structures of the people should be strengthened and enhance to promote the culture and tradition of the people etc.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Preamble

The era of industrial revolution (1760-1820) marked a major turning point in Earth’s ecology and human’s relationship with their environment (David 1969). This era dramatically changed every aspect of human life and lifestyle. The impact of this revolution on the worlds psyche was not felt until the early 1960’s, some 200 years after. From human development, health, and life longevity, to social improvements and the impact on natural resources, public health, energy usage and sanitation, the effects were profound. (Kiel, 2011)

Human population growth is indelibly fired together with increasing demand for natural and man-made resources, energy, land for various uses (most especially industrial uses), waste generation and its bye-products that are disposed off to decompose, pollute or be recycled, including high demand for housing accommodation (Allen, et al, 1974).

According to Alan (2005), industrialized cities all over the world are getting bigger as more people are migrating from rural to urban areas, creating enormous problems with respect to environmental pollution and the general quality of life. The industrial revolution and the location of industries have had notable impacts on both the society and the lifestyle of its citizenry cutting across labour conditions, population, housing, food and nutrition, and standard of living (Griffin, 2013) most especially as experienced in Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State.

The location of industries in Eleme has dramatically changed the already existing situation in terms of social and cultural attributes. The Eleme people witnessed a range of innovations and/or readjustment in all aspects of their socio- cultural endeavour. These of course is evidence and remarkable in the way and manner social activities are carried out in the area. The influx of people in the area occasioned by the numerous industries located in the region has created lots of ills and social vices a trend which has necessitated an empirical investigation. Hence, this study seeks to investigate the impacts of industrial location in the study area as to proferring possible measures to negative impacts and enhancement to positive ones.                                 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The movement of people from both rural and urban areas into Eleme industrial areas has led to an increasing population in the area, leading to high crime rate, scarcity of housing accommodation, high demand for food, pressure on available infrastructure, insecurity and change in land uses, etc. There is also the problem of cultural change and/or readjustment in the area, as the entire study area is occupied by people from different cultural background. The study area also experience high rate of prostitution among the teenage girls, occasioned by industrial workers. There is also high rate of school drop outs among the teaming youths of the study area as a result of their interest in industrial jobs through family and community quotas.

Eleme Local Government Area experienced high cost of living and a dramatic change in their traditional way of life including the type of food they eat and how it is prepared. The land on which the people farm have been seized up by industrial location and its activities to company works, and revenues from renting have gradually changed the traditional occupation of the people  and their major source of livelihood. This of course has led to the   gradual disappearance of the traditional heritage, true identity and culture of the Eleme people.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to assess the socio-cultural impact of industrial location and its activities on the people of Eleme. The specific objectives are to;

1.                  Assess the socio-cultural situation of the people of the area before the emergence of industries in the study area.

2.                  Identify the different industrial zones in the study area as specified in the Eleme master plan.

3.                  Examine the impacts of industrial location on the socio-cultural life of the people in the study area.

4.                  Proffer possible measures to identify negative impacts of industrial location and enhancement measures to positive ones

 

1.4       Research Questions

1.                  What was the socio-cultural situation of the people of the study area before the emergence of industries in the study area?

2.                  Where are the industrial zones in the study area as specified by the master plan?

3.                  To what extend has industrial location impacted the socio-cultural life of the people of the study area?

4.                  What are the possible measures to the identified negative impacts of industrial location and the enhancement measures to the possible ones?

 

1.5       Scope of Study

1.6       Justification for the Study

1.7       Limitations of Study

1.8       Study Area

 

 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages

Title Page                                        i
Abstract                                         vi
Table of Contents                                    vii
List of Tables                                         viii
List of Figures                                        ix
List of Plates                                          x
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1    Preamble                                     1
1.2    Statement of the Problem                            2
1.3     Aim and Objectives                                2
1.4    Research Questions                                3
1.5    Scope of Study                                    3
1.6    Justification for the Study                            4
1.7    Limitations of Study                                4
1.8    Study Area                                     4
Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework and Literature Review
2.1    Theoretical Framework                                10
2.1.1     Theory of Industrial Location                            10
2.1.2     Historical Perspective of Industrial Development in Nigeria            12
2.1.3    The Social and Cultural Life of Eleme in the Pre-Industrial Era.            14
2.2    The Impact of Industrialization on the Socio-Cultural life of Eleme people     16
2.3    Measures to Ameliorate the Socio-cultural Impact of Industrialization
in Nigeria.                                    16
Chapter 3
3.0     Methodology                                    18
3.1    The Research Design                                  18
3.2    Population and Sampling                            18
3.3    Sampling Procedure and Sampling Size                    20
3.4    Instrumentation and Data Collection                        22
3.4.1    Primary Data Sources                                22
3.4.2     Secondary Data Sources                            22
3.5    Analytical Techniques                                23
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH FINDINGS
4.1       Sex Distributions of Respondents                        24
4.2    Marital Status of Respondents                        25
4.3     Age Category of Respondents                        26
4.4      Income Level of Respondents                            26
4.5       Education Level of Respondents                        27
4.6     Household Size of Respondents                        28
4.7    Occupation of Respondents                            29
4.8     Socio-Cultural Situation of the Eleme People before the Location of
Industries                                    29
4.9     Perception of the People about the Effects of Industrial Activities and its Location                                            30
4.10    Positive Impact of the Location of Industries on Eleme People            31
4.11    Negative Impacts of the Location of Industries in Eleme                32
4.12    Negative Impacts of the Location of Industries in Eleme                32
4.13    Effects Arising from Negative Impacts                        33
4.14    Major Social Changes Occasioned by the Location of Industries        34
4.15    Opinion of Respondents on Government Intervention in Industrial
Activities                                    34
4.16    Level of Government’s Involvement in Industrial Activities            35
4.17    Possible Measures to Negative Impacts of Industrial Location in Eleme        36
4.18    Enhancement Measures to Positive Impacts of Industrial Location in Eleme     36
CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.1        Socio-Cultural Situation of Eleme before the Location of Industries        38
5.2    Eleme Industrial Location and the Master Plan                    39
5.3       Impact of Industrial Location on the Socio-Culture of Eleme People        39
5.3.1     Positive Impacts                                39
5.3.2     Negative Impacts                                40
5.4    Suggested Possible Measures to Ameliorate the Negative Impacts of
Industrial Location and its Activities in Eleme                    43
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1    Conclusion                                    44
6.2    Recommendations                                44
References                                        46
Appendices                                        48                                        

LIST OF TABLES

Table: 3.1 Populations and Sample Size                            22
Table 4.1: Questionnaire Distributions and Retrieval                    24
Table 4.2:  Income Level of Respondents                        27
Table 4.3:  Household Size of Respondents                        28
Table 4.4:  Occupation of Respondents                            29
Table 4.5:  Socio-Cultural Situation of Eleme People before the Location of
      Industries                                    30
Table 4.6: Positive Impact of Location of Industries on Eleme People            31
Table 4.7:                                        32
Table 4.8: Effects Arising from Negative Impacts                    33
Table 4.9: Major social Changes Occasioned by the Location of Industries        34
Table 4.10: Level of Government’s Involvement in Industrial Activities            35
Table 4.11:  Possible Measures to Negative Impacts of Industrial Location at
        Eleme                                    36
Table 4.12: Enhancement Measures to Positive Impacts of Industrial Location        37

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1:  Map of Rivers State showing Eleme LGA                    8
Figure 1.2: Map of 17 Communities of Eleme LGA                     9
Figure 3.1: Map of the 8 Industrial Based Communities of Eleme LGA            19
Figure 3.2: Map of Sampled Communities                         20
Figure 4.1: Sex of Respondents                                25
Figure 4.2: Marital Status of Respondents                         25
Figure 4.3: Age Category of Respondents                         26
Figure 4.4: Level of Education of Respondents                         28
Figure 4.5: Perception of the People about the Effect of Industrial Activities and its  Location                                            30   
Figure 4.6: Opinion on Form of Intervention in Industrial Activities            35

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 5.1: An Eleme Man in Traditional Attire                        38
Plate 5.2: Industries in the Study Area                             41
Plate 5.3: Eleme Traders Di


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