This study has addressed the effects of urbanization on the land use pattern of Bori. The study objectives were to examine the land use pattern in Bori as at 1972 when the Master Plan for the settlement was prepared; examine the land use changes that have since then; describe the characteristics of the migrants into Bori and their reasons for moving into the place; and recommend ways to deal with the effects of urbanization, especially on land use. The study used both primary and secondary data. The main instrument used to collect primary data was a pre-coded household questionnaire administered face-to-face to a carefully selected sample of 150 heads of households. Primary data were also collected through personal observation, interview of key informants and photography. Secondary information was obtained from published and unpublished sources, including the internet. The Master Plan for Bori, prepared in 1972 was found particularly useful. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out with the aid of the computer, using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS). Result were summarized using simple summary statistics, especially percentages, sometimes presented as charts and tables. Hypotheses were tested using the Chi Square test of independence between two cross-tabulated variables. The study found among others that the population of Bori had grown from 6,000 persons in 1972 to 23,741 in 2013, with in-migrants constituting 26.7% of the population. The latter were mainly people in the active age groups, with low education and mainly traders. The study further found that with the influx of migrants and the natural increase of population, there was more demand for land for residential development as well as for other uses; thus large part of the area once covered by forests had now been converted to mixed use – residential – commercial – farmland, constituting 49.6% of the total land area as at the time of the survey. The study has concluded, among others, that the present unorganized development and land use pattern in Bori is as a result of the absence of a Town Planning Authority to regulate development in the area and also recommended, among others, that a Planning Authority should be established and made functional in Bori by the employment of enough Town Planners and other development professionals to regulate development and that the Master Plan for Bori should be urgently revised to properly organize land use and provide a basis for development control.
1.1 Background of the Study
There is a natural tendency that every human being relocates from their settlement in search of white collar job, trade and business from one particu1ar environment to another in order to satisfy their wants which include food, shelter, safety, clothing, financial and other material wants. This leads to the influx of people from rural to urban areas. The effect is that there is a high pressure on and struggle for available natural and material resources.
Migration of people from rural to urban areas affects both urban and rural land uses. Historically, in the world all countries have fought against the problems of rural under - development. These problems have been tackled through various rural, developmental strategies to an extent that in the developing world, the issue of rural under-development has gained much significance. Presently third world countries are in the battle of developing their rural areas. The essence is to create a situation where rural areas are identified by average population of agricultural productivity and presence of essential facilities and services. The struggle to develop rural areas in Nigeria is one that started long ago. The countries has taken various identifiable steps to fight the problem but it seems intractable.
Therefore the limitation can be achieved through any effort that goes to satisfy the needs of the people by improving quality of living, communicating level, industrial level and social well being. The presence of these necessities in the right proportion and location determined growth as well as development when it is supported by sound economic base and improved production techniques.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Migration is one of the factors that causes population change in any given society. The factor that the migrant settle in impoverish city centres that leads to expansion that makes development to encroach into the periphery and as a result of outward shift suburbanization set in.
The possible problem on how to provide suitable environment for the rural people or teeming masses i.e. rural-urban migrant remains nagging changes for the environments, properly develops as well as individuals agrarians life is seriously affected in rural area as the labour force that do cultivates and harvest food crops have migrated to urban town in search of white collar jobs to do or work in an established food producing and processing industries in the rural cities which has over the years brought an erroneous competition with rural farming. In fact there is continued deterioration of agricultural economy.
Apart from political instability in rural villages created by rural migration, there are also serious economic changes, poverty, environmental degradation, toneliness and inequality in rural areas.
The bone of contention in this study remains to be the following:
1. Search of white collar job.
2. Improvement of standard of living
3. Affordability of housing
4. Industries for employment and empowerment
5. Lack of road and water supply
6. Inadequate water and electricity power supply
7. Telephone and other services like; banks, hospitals.
8. Cultural and social influence.
1.3 General Objectives of the Study
The broad objective is to examine the effects of urbanization of physical development planning on the people of Bori in Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State, or Assess the problem of migration on land use pattern on the people of Bori in Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State.
1.4 Specific Objectives of the Study
In specific terms the study will
1. Examine the nature of the existing land use pattern in Bori
2. Identify the factors that influences urbanization.
3. To assess the effects of the land use pattern on the people.
4. Explore the role of urbanization on land use pattern
1.5 The Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is to have an insight into the effect of migration in land use pattern in urban and rural communities and to know what kind of strategies that are available for most migrant to adopt, and how this adoption will enhance their performance on the urban and rural development and addresses the problem of under development.
The study will be of immense help to the migrants, government, corporate bodies particularly the government on how to provide substantial housing and social amenities to the migrants at suitable pricing strategies for the facilities.
It will also bring to the awareness of the public (migrant) how government policies can be of help to check and balance the effort of high rental value on residential accommodation as a result of migration. The role of pricing strategies with residential property accommodation can help in ensuring the survival of ever increasing movement of people from rural areas like village to urban area like town. Also, it will enhance their knowledge on how adequate facilities and implementation and suitable policies can be used as a means to achieve their aims and objectives.
Furthermore the importance of this study is for more comprehensive physical, regional planning policies or strategies that would help the government on rural development policies to the regional economic and industrial policies as these will ensure the rural people earn more within their immediate surrounding and at the same time, deter the rural immigrants from migrating into the city, thereby reducing the increase in migration on land use pattern.
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Conceptual and Theoretical Definition of Terms