OF TEACHERS AND PARENT TOWARD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
OF THE STUDY
Corporal punishment is
kind of punishment the causes severe pains to the body. It can be in various
forms among which are flogging, picking pains, frog jump, uprooting trees and
so on. Flogging which was mostly used in secondary schools was abolished in 1959
by the federal government thus generating argument between and among parents
and teachers. Parents, teacher and even the society at large are arguing that
corporal punishment be re-introduce to secondary schools. Corporal punishment
should be used as a social control mechanism as it helps curbs indiscipline
thereby establishing and maintaining a society full morally disciplined pupil.
The area of
corporal punishment was widely spread in school of Europe some several
centuries ago. Corporal punishment formed an important part of the curriculum;
Sparta boys were subjected to the ordeals of severe flogging as a test of
entrance and manhood (Boycott and king, 1975.)
et al (1982) defined Corporal punishment as inflicting of bodily or social pin
to the leaner. Also according to him, students who misbehave are regarded as
“bad” and are in need of punishment is applied it means that all other methods
of punishments must have been adopted and failed before the school administer
applies corporal punishment. Hence, Corporal Punishment could be seen as
presentation of unpleasant stimulus to cause a reduced frequency of emission of
behavior. Also Gene views punishment as arranged in order of severity and
should be used in order as far as it is necessary to control the situation.
Also when universal free
secondary education was introduced in the old Western region 1955, flogging in
schools was banned. However, some parents and teachers opposed to it, they
argued the Nigeria
children are not ready for such a change (Abiri 1976).
Most parents believed that
only the use of cane reform children and make them learn. Hence, the adage
“spares the rod and spoils the child” they also believed that if one is too
lenient in training a child, he will bring misfortune to himself and his
family. Parents also stress the importance of obedience and respect to elders
and thereby demand unquestionable submission to their will. Thus. They believe
that the present indiscipline in schools is due to the ban on the use of
corporal punishment. (Daniel 2011).
Since 1975, there has been
an increase in public attention to the problem of indiscipline in our country
in general and also in our schools system in particular. Early 1977, the issue
reached a critical point when the them military government concluded plans to
deploy military personnel to secondary schools in order to maintain discipline.
In July 1977, the National
Policy Development Centre organized a workshop on discipline in schools as part
of its own study on national discipline. Also in 1984, the military government
in power launched “war against Indiscipline” in the country. However, its
activities towards the use of corporal punishment in secondary school were
lukewarm. Although some people view corporal punishment as an act of discipline
whiles other perceive it a harsh act of discipline. The application of corporal
punishment is what that pupils would not be injured It is clear that the rate
of indiscipline in our schools nowadays cannot be over emphasized. This raises
the question of effective disciplinary methods in the control of problem
behaviors. It is therefore essential to investigate the attitude of parents and
teachers towards corporal punishment on erring pupils in secondary schools.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this
study is just like any other study, is to highlight the importance of
punishment because it is a general view that not all forms of rewards can make
a pupil to be submissive.
Punishment is intended to
effect a change in behavior, or break habits. Punishment is meant to save other
children from falling prey to the offender’s act. For instance, if a child is
identified as a bully in the school and the behavior is not curbed, he is
likely to influence a few other children to practice same. The tendency to
graduate into armed robbery is glaring. In a nutshell, punishment is well
administered it can accomplish the following result:
(1) Teaching the child respect
the child to do something he was not ready to do
(3) Blocking undesirable
Punishments, whether given
by parents or teachers must not be given just for the fun of it. However a
child in junior secondary school in a town was noted as a perpetual truant. The
efforts of parents and the class teacher to make him attend school regularly
failed. To teach him that his behavior was detrimental to his academic progress
and the eventual limitation of the behavior by other children in the class. Punishment
is well known for the following reasons:
(1) Setting an example for potential offenders.
(2) Making children pay
attention to class work.
(3) Motivating students to learn assigned
materials ( Blair, Jones and Simpson 1975)
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Corporal punishment is
geared towards maintaining discipline in secondary Schools and it also curls juvenile’s
delinquency in the society. However, problems arise when corporal punishment is
administered on secondary school pupils. The use of corporal punishment however
has generated much argument among educationist, sociologist philosophers as
well as the psychologist No one argument aver this because of its controversial
nature. This study will look into parents and primary school pupils. (Bello 1978).
The main assumption of
this study is to find out the attitudes of teachers and parent toward corporal
punishment in secondary school specifically, the study seeks to:
Identify the attitudes of parents towards corporal punishment
in secondary schools.
Identify the attitudes of teacher toward corporal punishment
in secondary schools.
3. Find out ways in which corporal punishment can be properly
administered in secondary schools.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions
were formulated to guide the study:
1. What are the attitudes of parent toward corporal punishment in Secondary schools in Kaduna north
2. What are the attitudes of teachers towards corporal punishment
in secondary schools in Kaduna north local Government?
What are the ways in primary schools in Kaduna north local Government?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is centered on attitudes of
parents and teachers towards corporal punishment in secondary schools in Kaduna
North local government area of Kaduna State. It is also delimited to the
teachers and students of the selected secondary schools in Kaduna North Local
Government area of Kaduna state. There are Thirteen(13) Secondary School in
Kaduna North, while the school listed below: Government Girls Secondary School,
Tafawa Balewa Kabala Costain, Rimi College Kaduna, Government Girls Secondary School
Doka, and Government Girls Secondary School WTC Independence way Kaduna. Random
sampling was used in the selection of this schools to ease our research.
OF THE STUDY
financial constraint and the mobility, the researcher limit himself. in this
study, the basis is on the significance on attitude of parents and teachers
towards corporal punishment in selected junior secondary schools in Kaduna North local Government area of Kaduna State. Thus the finding will go a long way to
assist both parents and teachers as well
as policy makers in resolving corporal punishment in secondary schools.
OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS
Corporal punishment: this is
any kind of punishment that causes severe pains to the body.
Proper punishment: it is the
kind of punishment that is carefully used, to help the teacher or parents
accomplish his / her goal.
Counseling the offender: This
is an open ended problem solving situation which a student with assistance can
focus and begin to solve problems.
Re-proof: this is an attempt to
call the attention of the child to the fact that his conduct has been noted to
be unsatisfactory, and a need for a change is require
Doubtful punishment: This is
punishment that may fail to achieve the desired effects.
6. Attitude: what you think
and feel about something.
7. Parents: someone’s father
8. Junior secondary school: A
school for student between the ages of 12 and 14 or 15.