COST ACCOUNTING AND ITS APPLICATION TO MANAGEMENT PLANNING, CONTROL AND DECISION MAKING
(A Case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company (NBC) Kaduna)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vii
Table of contents - - - - - - - - viii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of study - - - - -- - 2
1.2 Objectives of the study - - - - - - 3
1.3 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - 4
1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - 4
1.5 Scope of the study - - - - - - - 5
1.6 Historical Background of NBTE - - - - 5
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 7
2.2 Meaning of cost accounting - - - - - 8
2.3 Planning and the application of cost accounting - - 9
2.4 Control and cost accounting - - - - - 15
2.5 Standard cost as a tool for control - - - - 19
2.6 Decision making - - - - - - - 24
2.7 The decision making process - - - - - 25
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 29
3.1 Population and Sample Size - - - - - 29
3.2 Sampling Techniques - - - - - - 30
3.3 Sources and Method of Data Collection - - - 30
3.4 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 31
3.5 Justification for the Choice - - - - - 31
Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 32
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - - 32
4.2 Analysis of Questionnaire - - - - - 33
4.3 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - 41
4.4 Summary of findings - - - - - - 41
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 43
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 44
5.3 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 45
5.4 Recommendations - - - - - - 46
Bibliography - - -- - - - - 48
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The main theme of this project is to bring to highlight the importance of costing to the existence of any organization, using the Nigeria Bottling company as a case study.
Every activity and operation of an organization involves cost. In view of this, I intend to discuss the objectives, principles, techniques and methods of costing relating to the analysis and gathering of cost information for planning, control and decision making.
It must be emphasized, that the existence of a sound well organized basic costing system is fundamental to whatever use is made of the information whether for routine cost ascertainment purposes or for a one – off decision.
Decisions depend on financial factors therefore it is of utmost importance that proper costing methods and techniques suitable for an organization operations to be ascertained, adopted and operated effectively and religiously throughout the organizations` process and operations.
In essence, organization are established for a defined purpose which objective can only be seen or shown to the world by the output (product) it produces. For there to be an output the most necessary is the input. Inputs do not come for free; payments have to be made on them. Taking the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) as a case study, it needs inputs in the form of raw materials, labour etc. to produce goods (soft drink) and payment must be made for these inputs, this boils down to cost.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the past, many companies have witnessed considerable lapses and increasing changes in management disciplines. Costing an important element in the overall operation of an organization through the provision of relevant information about cost is one of the problems organizations are facing. Because there are no satisfactory requirements to maintain detailed cost records, some small firms keep only traditional financial accounts and prepare cost information in an ad-hoc-fashion. In all but small firms this approach is likely to be unsatisfactory.
There is a vast range of systems in operation ranging from simple analysis to computer based accounting systems incorporating standards, variance analysis and the automatic production of control and operating statements. These different costing methods are meant to suit different organization the adaptation of the wrong method, for a company will constitute a problem instead of a solution. Also poor or inadequate knowledge of a particular method of costing has constituted problems for many firms.
Most companies are still using the simple analysis system to set cost while some companies do not even have a costing system. This no doubt has led to poor planning, control and decision making.
1.3 OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This project is designed to provide a clear and concise understanding of the importance of costing to the manager in carrying out his/her responsibility for planning controlling and making decision which will lead to achieving certain goals. This research work aim to highlight that costing is
i. Indispensable in determining the cost per unit of a product.
ii. A factor in pricing decision, production planning and cost control.
iii. An important tool in running a section, department or factory, that is, organizational planning, decision on alternative methods, wages cost control and material cost control.
iv. Important in profit planning, make or buy decision etc.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Cost Accounting is not an indispensable tool in management planning, control and decision making.
H1: Cost Accounting is an indispensable table in management planning control and decision making.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is the desire of any management to maximize profit to boast of high profit all expenses incurred must have to be deducted from turnover; whether profit will be low or high largely depends on how much deductions (expenses) will be. Excessive cost reduces turnover excessively this in turn reduces profit. This project which is centered on the importance of establishing adequate and proper cost for production will
(1) Be of immense contribution towards helping managers to determine proper cost for organizational operations
(2) Help managers and others in industry, commerce, local authorities and similar organization to gain a working knowledge of the principles and processes of cost.
(3) Enable managers to analyse, select and implement the principle, techniques and method that best suit their firm.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers a general review of the different methods and techniques of costing and how cost accounting affects the planning, control and decision making process of an organization using the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) as a case study.
1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE FIRM
The Nigeria bottling company [NBC] was incorporated in November 1951, as a subsidiary of the A.G Leventis group with the franchise to bottle and sell coca-cola product in Nigeria. From a humble beginning business, the company has grow to become a prodominant bottler of non-alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, responsible for the manufacture and sales of over 33 different coca-cola brands. Other popular brands of beverages produced by the company are Eva water, Five Alive fruit juice and the newly introduced Burn energy drink.
Coca-cola, the product that gives the world its best known taste, was first set up in Lagos, Nigerian in the year 1953. This became the beginning of an exciting story of growth and development particularly in the recent past.
The company presently has 13 bottling facilities and over so distribution warehouses located across the country. Since production started, NBC PLC has remained the largest bottler of non- alcoholic beverages in the country in terms of sales volume, with about 1.8 billion bottles sold per year making it the second largest market in Africa.
Other products by the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) include Fanta orange, Fanta Tonic, Fanta Apple, Soda water, Fanta pineapple Sprite, Bitter Lemon and Coke etc. All of these are one of the most selling drinks in the country and worldwide. In addition, it is today Nigeria number one bottler of soft drinks selling more than 7,000,000 bottles per day. Currently, there are about 20 plants in various parts of the federation and more are yet to come.